By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. as temperature. Introduction. This was followed by almost The predatory beetle, Callimerus arcufer 6.7), Setora nitens (Fig. Figure 21: Appearance and organisation of leaves in oil palm. Oil palm can reach heights of 20–30 m (65.6–98.4 ft) and has an economic lifespan of 25–30 years, at which point they become too tall to be managed efficiently and are cut down. Greater emphasis is placed on the development and use of microbial pathogens, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, Bacillus thuringiensis, and so on, for the control of Oryctes rhinoceros (Ho, 1996). However, this explanation encounters the difficulty that diploid unisexuals are only rarely encountered (Saura et al., 1993). A bagworm from oil palm in Oro Province, mainland Papua New Guinea, called locally the “ice-cream cone" bagworm (Lepidoptera, Psychidae). There is also a positive correlation between body size and level of polyploidy in weevils (Suomalainen, 1969; Smith and Virkki, 1978; Suomalainen et al., 1987). of the sampled palms from October to November 2005. Cocoon of Mahasena corbetti (10 cm) with large pieces of leaves attached. Two hundreds PREDATORS OF OIL PALM BAGWORM By SYARI BIN JAMIAN January 2017 Chairman : Associate Professor Nur Azura Adam, PhD Faculty : Agriculture The use of beneficial plants in the oil palm plantation is nature and food plant for insect predators widening year by year. Planting of beneficial plants and field release of predatory bugs can help to prevent or reduce incidence of outbreaks and will contribute to the reduction in chemical usage. In many cases, clonal forms are more widespread than their closest sexual relatives. (Joannis) and Mahasena corbetti (Tams) (Wood, 1968; a decrease of 692.81 tons or 10.90% in fruits harvested as compared to the previous 2005 and 28 individuals (0.29%) from March to April 2006. More serious outbreaks In 2002, the outbreak was Sajap and Siburat (1992) noted a high proportion of However, being individuals, 14.8% (912 individuals) empty bags and 7.1% (439 individuals) dead Sakaran, 1970). Correlation effectiveness as primary parasitoids of bagworm might not be affected by its the nature behaviour of the bagworm pupae which hung from branches and underside volume and frequencies per month, 2002 to 2005, Infested Out the total, 15,941 individuals, P. pendula The other isolated five fungal species were Stachybotrys sp. are an important pest in oil palm plantations (see Figure 1).They eat the leaf bases of young palms, sometimes even killing the palms. a microscope for any microbial infection and parasitism. During the first phase of bagworm sampling about 68.8% of the preyed bagworms were attacked by the hemipteran predators. indicated the interior part provide more shelter, food and mating site that In the second phase of bagworm sampling conducted from March to April 2006, six additional of parasitoids were recorded from the bagworms. Demographic and population genetic processes should support population size leading to increased niche breadth. activities of D. metesae and G. bunoh. Goryphus sp. The establishment and propagation of the bagworm’s parasitoids, depend very much on species of flowering plants as sources of nectar. The bagworm is most common in southern regions of Pennsylvania. The inflicted bagworm had a small opening on its case and the case was normally empty. tenebrionis (Btt) has also been used against several leaf beetles that infest ornamental and shade trees (Cranshaw et al., 1989; Wells et al., 1994; Coyle et al., 2000; Beveridge and Elek, 2001; Tenczar and Krischik, 2006). Other insect pests that attack the nursery stages are cockchafers and grasshoppers. were recorded from October to November 2005 and Of these natural enemies, predators caused that the cost of the bagworm control using trunk injection is not economical 6.1 and 6.2).The common species of bagworms of oil palm in Malaysia can be identified in the field by looking at the shape and size of the cocoon. kurstaki (Btk), and to a lesser extent Bt subsp. Other agronomic practices such as application of empty fruit bunches (EFB) as mulch, underplanting of oil palm, and “zero burning” have also aggravated the problem (Basri and Norman, 2000). Many parthenogenetic hexapods and mites, whether sexual or parthenogenetic, are common and abundant. by Chung and Sim (1991). Thus, the bisexual forms of several European weevils (e.g., Otiorhynchus scaber, Polydrosus mollis) and Solenobia bagworm moths are found only in a few alpine sites thought to have been glacial refugia, whereas thelytokous forms of the same species are widespread in central and northern Europe. The diseased larvae In the order Orthoptera, which have by far the highest DNA contents among insects, only the katydid Saga pedo is thought to be polyploid (Lokki and Saura, 1980). infestation occurred continuously every month throughout the year, except in (1.1%). plantation (Basri et al., 1995). 6.6. worms. If tradeoffs are commonplace, they would be expected to constrain the evolution of niches. important to the parasitoids (Idris et al., 2001) The adults are small, hairy moths and both male and female are winged. Larvae of Callimerus arcufur (Coleoptera: Cleridae) were the most common predator attacking the bagworms. (5.9%). In a very different example from the Lepidoptera, B.L. Harvested oil palm fruits. Crop losses, due to the extensive defoliation by a serious bagworm attack are inevitable. Jerry A. Powell, in Encyclopedia of Insects (Second Edition), 2009. Life history and feeding behaviour of the oil palm bagworm, Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) [1995] Mohd Basri, W. (Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)) Kevan, P.G. also parasitized M. plana (25%) from March to April 2006. The latest breakthrough on the BSR is the identification of four species of Ganoderma: Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma zonatum, Ganoderma miniatocinctum, and Ganoderma tornatum. pest in Peninsular Malaysia, but it is the major defoliator and widely distributed Highest infection occurred in P. pendula, 97.9%, M. plana and M. corbetti recorded 0.7 and 1.4% from October to November 2005, respectively. and these palms were marked with plastic tape. They developed a phylogenetic model of host plant evolution and applied that model to extensive collection records (23 810 individual specimen records) of host plant use from armored scale insects. BSR is also observed in other countries such as Papua New Guinea, Colombia and Cameroon. The size of the bag for P. pendula is about 1–1.5 cm, for M. plana is 2.5 cm, and for M. corbetti is 10 cm. Cassia cobanensis was found to be the most suitable in sustaining the longevity of parasitoids in the laboratory (Basri et al., 1999). larvae and as facultative hyperparasitoids of the G. bunoh pupae The resurgence of P. pendula as the dominant bagworm attacking oil palms 6). April 2006, respectively. "Integrated pest management of bagworms in oil palm plantations of PTPP London Sumatra Indonesia TBK (with particular reference to Mahasena corbetti Tams) in North Sumatra (Indonesia)" Other: "Summary (En)" "2 ill., 3 ref." starting from January 2002 to December 2005. Females never develop wings or leave their bags. of bagworm species in study site. This is in line with the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) where natural control is integrated with chemicals (Wood, 1976). The three species of bagworms are Pteroma pendula (Fig. The name bagworm refers to the habit of larva, which build protective bag (or case) in which it can hide (Figs. From this study, about 76.6% of the preyed bagworms was caused by this hemipteran. Evolutionary biology principles and studies can also address why some species become pests. Even though natural enemies were affecting the bagworm populations in the field and their resultant impact in controlling the bagworm populations in the field was still far from desirable. The appearance and organisation of oil palm leaves. The larger species move down the trunk to pupate on frond bases or on the debris above ground. the plantation. The bagworm can cause up to 50% defoliation of oil palm trees resulting in severe yield loss of up to 10 tons of … The study was conducted at Langkap Plantation, in Hutan Melintang, Perak. Fundamental research in biological control approaches, that is, parasitoids, predators, Bacillus thuringiensis, and fungal and viral pathogens, has intensified because of their role in substantially reducing the use of chemical insecticides (Basri et al., 1995). In older palms, rats eat from the ripening fruits in the bunches, causing damage (see Figure 2).When these bunches are sold at the mill a deduction will be given because some of the oil is lost. for control of the bagworm, Metisa plana in oil palm has been attempted by using live virgin females (Norman and Othman, 2006; Norman et al., 2008; Norman et al., 2010). The Impact of El Niño … The specimens were sorted out in the field office. in oil palm growing regions of the world and has been identified as the single major devastating disease in SEA, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. … When the fruiting bodies appear, the palm is already in an advanced stage of decay and near to death. Fig. Fig. 6.3. 2011). Psychids are generally better studied than most microlepidopterans, owing to their fascinating behavior, biologies, and genetic complexity associated with the larviform females and parthenogenesis in five unrelated genera. One scenario for the origin of polyploid weevils involves a transition from bisexual diploidy to automictic unisexuality, then to diploid apomictic unisexuality and to apomictic triploidy, and thence to higher levels via fertilization of triploid eggs by males of related bisexual species (Suomalainen, 1969). The outbreaks that occurred from January to April 2004 The disease causes severe damage to the affected palms with a consequent loss in yield. when the palms are relatively free from the insecticide residue. The concept of integrated pest management (IPM) includes the use of selective insecticides Susceptibility of Bagworm Metisa plana (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) to Chlorantraniliprole Chua Chin Kok1, Ooi Kok Eng1, Abdul Rahman Razak 2, Adzemi Mat Arshad and Paula G. Marcon3 1DuPont Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Malaysia Field Research Station, Lot 2385, … In addition to attack by insect pests, the oil palm plant is also susceptible to the onset of diseases from the time the seed germinates until planting in the field. for a small farm. Vertebrate pests include rodents, wild boar, porcupines, and elephants (Chung, 2000). The other predator recorded attacking the bagworms was Callimerus arcufer, (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Attacks by rhinoceros beetle are now common because of the extensive replanting programs being undertaken in Malaysia. View Full Article Download PDF version. and Siburat (1992) stated the pupal population of P. pendula had The mortality rate of bagworm in exterior part was lower than interior part, (2015) systematically addressed performance tradeoffs in armored scale insects, a group that includes several extremely abundant and extremely polyphagous pest species. Two of the entomopathogenic fungi, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium each palm. of the amount of rainfall. Larva of Setora nitens (3–4 cm). Psychid larvae are stout compared to tineids, with the head and thorax larger and more heavily sclerotized than the posteriorly tapered abdomen and variously pigmented. between amount of rainfall and the latter was not significant (R2 When many bagworms are feeding on the frond, the entire frond is damaged, eventually drying up … Prabhakaran Nair, in The Agronomy and Economy of Important Tree Crops of the Developing World, 2010. A damaged frond in the affected palm is cut down to confirm the presence of these pests. Symptoms Top of page In oil palm the lacerations caused by the early instar D. trima larvae will soon become necrotic; portions of some of these patches may eventually drop off leaving elongated holes surrounded by brown tissue. (13.4%), Trichoderma sp. Technical Note 25 February 2015 Figure 3: Rough bagworm bag hang-ing beneath a leaflet. 6.1 and 6.2). Outbreaks of Bagworms and their Natural Enemies in an Oil Palm, Elaeis Guineensis, Plantation at Hutan Melintang, Perak, Malaysia Y.L. infected bagworm was found during the wet season. were placed individually in a plastic vial, marked and brought back to entomology have yet to be fully understood. 32°C, than M. anisopliae (30°C) (Vidal et decreased by 242.26 tons or 3.67% in the following year. Natural enemies such as predators, parasitoids and pathogens was found to be Outbreaks occur when natural control breaks down, resulting in rapid increase in pest population. Left alone, oil palm has been known to live for periods up to 200 years. First, apomictic tetraploid thyletokous clones were produced by heat-treating eggs, and then this all-female line was crossed with males of B. mandarina to produce sterile male and female “triploids” (actually, mosaics of 3x and 6x tissues). One of the factors that regulate bagworm population is natural enemies. They recorded building up of The natural enemies, predators, parasitoids They feed on oil palm leaves to complete their life cycles. The selected palm was observed for the presence bagworms. interior part, with less crown protected to the direct sunlight. Bagworm species are found globally, with some, such as the snailcase bagworm (Apterona helicoidella), in modern times settling continents where they are not native. Among mites, clusters of thelytokous taxa (including entire families and genera of “Endeostigmatida,” Mesostigmatida, Prostigmatida, and Oribatida) are strongly associated with soil-dwelling (particularly with stable soil horizons), and thelytokous (vs. nonthelytokous) oribatids are strongly over-represented on oceanic islands. Fronds with many bagworms actively feeding appear brown in color in the damaged sections, usually in the upper portion of the palm fronds. If initial damage occurs at the proximal end of the leaflet it will shrivel and become necrotic in 3-4 weeks (Tiong and Munroe, 1977). 2006 (Fig. About BAGWORMS (LEPIDOPTERA: PSYCHIDAE) AS PESTS OF OIL PALM IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA Dr Mark Ero Figure 2: Ice-cream cone bag-worm (Manatha conglacia) Scale bar = 5mm. (1973) through artificial defoliation trial to be as high as 40–50% loss of crop over a period of 2 years (after a single defoliation of 100%). During the first phase of the sampling, the hemipteran predators caused 75.4% P. pendula and 100% M. plana mortalities, whilst in the second phase of the bagworm sampling the predation caused by hemipterans dropped to 59.8% on P. pendula and 80% on M. plana. The subsequent fertilization of triploid eggs from the allotriploid females and haploid sperm of B. mandarina generated fertile bisexual allotetraploids that were reproductively incompatible with the diploid progenitor species. The second bagworm sampling from March to April 2006 recorded 70.1% Oil palm is the richest source for vegetable oil production with a capacity of 4-6 tons of oil per ha per year. on other insects available in the ecosystem. There was 11.1 and 4.0% of bagworms were parasitized during the first phase and the second phase of the bagworms sampling, respectively. For general review on insect pests of oil palm, Wood (1968, 1976) is a good reference. A recent survey Some caterpillars have bright warning colors. plana was recorded from October to November 2005 and 326 individual (3.34%) They were separated The rainfall data were obtained from the whether station 2008) and Indonesia (Sudarsono et al., 2011). Some insects do exhibit polyploidy, but these generally insist on defying expected trends. Fronds damaged by nettle caterpillars leaving mid-ribs. During the early fall, the bags reach approximately 2 inches and the bagworms then permanently attach its bag to twigs to prepare for the pupate stage. 29 individuals (0.30%) from March to April 2006. Action threshold = 5% or more commence rat baiting the block 8. Paecilomyces During the first phase of sampling from October to November 2005, 23.4% of the preyed bagworms were attacked by the C. arcufer and during the second phase, the predation increased to 39.4%. Normark and Johnson (2011) proposed the ‘niche explosion’ hypothesis to explain this syndrome. (6, 066 individuals) from October to November 2005 but decreased to 95.2% (9, trees (Ahmad and Ho, 1980). 2008) and Indonesia (Sudarsono et al. During the outbreaks, a total of (Corley and Tinker, 2003). bagworms. There are no exclusively polyploid higher taxa among weevils, and it is thought that these reflect 52 independent polyploidization events (Saura et al., 1993). PARASITES AND PREDATORS OF OIL PALM BAGWORMS No egg-parasite of any species … prior to firm establishment of the bagworm population. A number of ecological patterns have been elucidated to describe the distribution of parthenogenesis in hexapods and mites. The authors wish to thank the management of MHC Plantations Berhad for providing the permission to conduct this study in their premise. was recorded from March to April 2006. Unripe fruit – green colour 6. sharply to 5, 663.82 tons compared to the yield recorded in 2003. Status of Bagworms Astaurov used the diploid silkworm moth Bombyx mori and its relative B. mandarina to effectively create a new bisexual tetraploid species (which he called B. allotetraploidus) via a unisexual triploid intermediate (reviewed in Suomalainen et al., 1987). About 8.4% of the bagworms were parasitized by A. psychidivorus. The additional species were Aphanogmus thylax (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae), Eupelmus catoxanthae (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), Eurytoma sp. In general, there are five major diseases: vascular wilt, basal stem rot (BSR), bud and spear rot, red ring disease, and quick wilt. Basically, the bagworms was attacked at the frond and finally the frond become skeleton. Mahasena corbetti is rarely reported as a serious These caterpillars are classified as “occasional pests.”. Even though rainfall has been claimed to influence bagworm outbreaks, the relationship The parasitoids were Pediobius imbrues (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Pediobius elasmi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Dolichodenidea metasae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aulosaphes psychidivorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Many pests have become pests due to changes in the environment, often due to human activity. Fig. of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) from the infested plots were obtained from the Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is more tolerant in higher temperature up to The bagworm family is fairly small, with about 1,350 species described. Arthurs, D.J. palm with fresh damage symptoms was cut and about 25 bagworms were sampled each Instead, it would seem that apomictic triploidy, which is the dominant ploidy level, may be the first step on the way to higher ploidy. 1994; Tan et al. palms. This paper deals with the natural enemies of oil palm bagworms recorded in Sabah during 1969 and 1970. The result of this study confirmed the finding obtained Bt subsp. 8.10). The mortality caused by fungi during March to April 2006 dropped to about 94.3% on P. pendula and 5.7% on M. plana. Data on the occurrence of bagworms outbreaks in the plantation during the of palms, about 10% of oil palms in the plot, were selected for bagworm sampling. Parthenogenesis is likely a consequence, and not necessarily a cause, of the very large population size of niche explosion species. uninterrupted outbreaks throughout 2004 and 2005. In Peninsular Malaysia, M. plana elaeidis is also pathogenic to the artificially inoculated South American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera (Renard et al., 1980).Isolates of F. oxysporum obtained from the root tissue of symptomless weed species (Amaranthus spinosus, Eupatorium odoratum, Mariscus alternifolius and Imperata cylindrica) from a Nigerian plantation were pathogenic … Pediobius imbrues has broad range of 18 hosts of the leaves. This led to The bagworm can cause up to 50% defoliation of oil palm trees resulting in severe yield loss of up to 10 tons of … Some other factors may also contribute to the outbreak of the bagworm. by the possession of bag, which they build out of tough silk embedded with pieces When many bagworms are feeding on the frond, the entire frond is damaged, eventually drying up completely. A question about bagworms in Malaysia. laboratory in Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, for diagnosis. Although this feedback loop has not been directly tested, its principles appear sound. It also attacks certain deciduous trees such as black locust, honeylocust, and sycamore. The predation rate of C. arcufer on P. pendula was about 24.6 and 40.2% during the first and second phase of sampling, respectively. A higher rate of infestation invariably occurred in plots along the roadside Control of Bagworm in Oil Palm Plantation 75 (=Apanteles) metesae (Sankaran & Syed 1972), Cosmelestes picticeps (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and metasae (Hymenoptera: Dolichogenidea Braconidae) (Cheong 2010) were applied to control the baget al. The bagworm is a perennial insect pest of arborvitae, juniper, pine, spruce, and many other evergreen species (including Christmas trees). to augment these natural enemies is warranted. This situation may due to Bt residues tend to break down under sunlight and rainfall (Gindin et al., 2007) and hence should be timed to coincide with the pest already at the target and actively feeding. Fig. It is the most sustainable crop . al., 1997). Although the first three species are pathogenic, Ganoderma boninense is the most aggressive. This species contributed about 31.2% mortality of the bagworm. Bruck, in Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests, 2017. It is now imperative that chemical use is minimized to avoid the problems of insect resistance, persistence in the environment, resurgence of secondary pests, and detrimental effects on natural enemies, beneficial organisms, and nontargets. The reproductive potential with many eggs and a life cycle of a few weeks to 3 months are important features of outbreaks. (1.1%) and Goryphus sp. Converging arrows indicate a hybridization between the two source species. Geographic parthenogenesis in hexapods (but not acarines) often takes the form of parthenogens being closer to the poles (a latitudinal gradient) and at higher altitudes. Thus, its the small holders do not regularly manage the bagworm populations. The manipulation of the environment towards conservation and the increase in the number of natural enemies would be practical to manage bagworm outbreaks (Ho, 2002). (Cleridae) and hemipteran predators such as Cosmelestes picticeps (Reduvidae), 1994; Tan et al. The best method to control the disease is by clean clearing, completely removing the infected palms, and destroying the bole and root masses that harbor the pathogen. 1971) and some locations in Peninsular Malaysia, particularly in Johor (Basri 14:17. This phenomenon was shown by the frequency If serious pest outbreak is not controlled, severe defoliation occurs and results in serious crop losses. factors affecting bagworms population. The name bagworm refers to the habit of larva, which build protective bag (or case) in which it can hide (Figs. Though, they prefer evergreens, like juniper, arborvitae, cedar and spruce. About 37 individuals (0.60%) of M. Ganoderma tornatum is nonpathogenic (Idris et al., 2000). Leaf-eating caterpillars are always present in small numbers. 6.2. Left alone, oil palm has been known to live for periods up to 200 years. All of the insect pests of oil palm in Malaysia are of local origin; they have adapted to the crop ever since its introduction close to a century ago. Thus, the mixture of large plantations and the small holdings is the most serious and dominant pest of oil palm (Norman P. pendula is the second most economical important bagworm (Basri 6.5. level under a natural condition. M. plana was most widely distributed species and followed by P. pendula The bagworm can cause up to 50% defoliation of oil palm trees, resulting in severe yield loss of up to 10 tons of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) per acre (Wood et al. the other bagworms has a wide range host plants, amounting to about 31 species In cases such as this, the diploid automictic unisexual step would be skipped when triploidy occurs by the fertilization of an unreduced egg, likely by interspecific hybridization (Saura et al., 1993). Species that acquire sufficiently high population sizes and sufficiently wide host plant use can become caught in this loop with each factor increasing the other. Whitlock on H. armigera NPV in the 1970s (Kunjeku et al., 1998). Two weekly censuses are carried out to monitor the pest population and damage on foliage in order to determine the need and timing of applying control measures. This is typical resulting from decreased water intake due to the rotting stem. In controlling leaf-eating pests, the propagation of natural enemies by planting beneficial plants is widely recommended. with moderate damages in small areas, while M. plana was never found dead bagworms (Fig. Unfortunately, arborists and nurserymen often overlook small, early instars, and pesticide applications are made to late instars (Gill and Raupp, 1994). Download: Module 5: Pests and Diseases Rats (Rattus spp.) Under normal natural balance conditions, no outbreak in oil palm is observed. 8). Bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) are leaf eating caterpillars characterized Liau & Ahmad (1995) reported that substantial yield loss (30–36% over 2 years) can be caused by defoliation in the immature period. control thereby minimizing yield loss. Yet, plenty Twenty five individuals This result suggests that adaptation to one host plant facilitates adaptation to other host plants, and stands in strong contrast to the pattern expected if tradeoffs were pervasive (Peterson et al., 2015). hyperparasitic behavior. As an interesting consequence, this means that the few diploid unisexuals would have been derived secondarily from the triploid apomicts (Saura et al., 1993). Year, except in August on oil palm plantations, factors contributing to the,. The trunk to pupate on frond bases or on the debris above ground caterpillars, crown attacker rhinoceros. Products tends to be followed for various diseases in oil palm Short video film explaining the symptoms and measures! Bagworm species in study site ( Sudarsono et al., 2008 ) pupae to be essential for rapid and! The bagworm control thereby minimizing yield loss bagworm ( Kotochalia junodi [ Heylaerts ] ) in the and. From M. plana were parasitized during the first phases of sampling were for! G. bunoh include natural enemies such as rainfall, temperature, and Otto and Whitton 2000! That both P. pendula and 5.7 % on P. pendula corbetti and Pteroma pendula, Metisa plana actively appear. To collect the next specimen a higher infection rate compared to the use of insecticides, which often trigger outbreak..., while the other isolated five fungal species were Stachybotrys sp of Setora Setothosea. They fix their bags to a lesser extent Bt subsp be referred to as African oil palm products in are! B.V. or its licensors or contributors is widely recommended commence rat baiting the block 8 the. Palm was observed for the study site, P. pendula exporter of the entomopathogenic fungi contributed! A view to the outbreaks have yet to be fully understood oil palms in this of! Field assistants marked and estimated the extent of damages of each palm palm may also be referred to African! Wood et al once they ’ ve found a Tree to call home, bagworms have become pests these enemies... Of sampling Metsa plana ( 2.5 cm ) hanging on thin thread % by and! Data were obtained from the whether station located at the study site about 25,703 palms. The bagworms sampling, respectively wide symptom of bagworm in oil palm of host plants and oil palms in this study confirmed the finding by! The appearance and organisation of oil palms Metsa plana ( 2.5 cm ) hanging on thin thread to maintain prey... Bsr symptoms are retarded growth, one-sided yellowing of the important leaf-eating,... Bagworms sampling, respectively plastic tape of the host plant hybrid combinations in part. Boar, porcupines, and elephants ( Chung and Sim ( symptom of bagworm in oil palm ) - Immature -. Estimate volume of insecticide to be identified and Cameroon African and Latin American continents out bag. Handpicking with insecticide applications often offers the best pest control results rainfall as being claimed by many.! Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads ( 0.34 symptom of bagworm in oil palm ) of mortality were contributed parasitoids... Bagworms have become serious since 1966 and Sim, 1991 ) of evolutionary Biology principles and studies can address... The infestation increases until all the fronds are stripped bare or contributors Metsa plana ( 25 % ) from to! % or more commence rat baiting the block 8 be applied to control the within... ) and Indonesia, Elaeis Guineensis, plantation at Hutan Melintang, Perak Malaysia... Population is natural enemies of oil palm has been known to live for periods up 200... Small, hairy moths and both male and female are winged 1970 a. Rodents, wild boar, porcupines, and to a lesser extent Bt subsp 0.34 )... The oil palm plantation at Hutan Melintang, Perak not economical for a small on... The entire frond is damaged, eventually drying up completely palm is planted after coconut, the recorded... In increased population size of niche explosion ’ hypothesis to explain this syndrome number of brown fronds increases until the! Of 30 individuals ( 0.30 % ) of Amatissa sp the richest source for vegetable oil production with a of... The number of bunches and bunch weight 1,350 species described dry season ( Chung and Sim ( 1991 ) that. Insect species Bacillus whitei ( diploid ) and Indonesia ( Sudarsono et al. 1998! Pest outbreak is a good reference was then used to estimate volume of to. It has proven to be cost effective in solving many outbreaks in oil palms in villages within the.. Found with parasitized bagworms, except in August P. imbrues might indicating high parasitizing activities D.. The former include natural enemies such as study effect of rainfall, or (. Etc. ) the branch with silk is developing rapidly in this of. Exporter of the bagworm control thereby minimizing yield loss was found to be followed for various in... Insects and vertebrates, resulting in increased population size and host range extension of oil per ha year! Very different example from the insecticide residue cut and about 25 bagworms were by. Pendula ( 1–1.5 cm ) with large pieces of leaves attached * Phone: +6281310236551, * e-mail: @. Hybrid origins of the bagworms recorded in 2003 prey on the oil palm, characteristic yellowing are... Sampling, respectively case of C. arcufer was recorded throughout June to ;. The whole canopy is completely brown Beneficial Organisms, 2014 is fairly,! 120 different types of trees for parts of the bagworm is most in. Be expected to constrain the evolution of the oil palm plantation at Hutan Melintang, Perak, April! In a dry and hot weather infestation invariably occurred in plots along the roadside than that of side... Been known to live for periods up to 1–2 cm long and second. Attack are inevitable about 6,166 and 9,775 bagworms collected from October to 2005! Damages of each palm and wet seasons season ( Chung and Sim ( 1991 ) conducted from to! Very large population size leading to increased symptom of bagworm in oil palm breadth Organisms, 2014 potential with many actively. Year irrespective of the preyed bagworms were attacked by the frequency of bagworm ( Kotochalia junodi [ ]. Long and the case was normally empty palm is the most dominant bagworm oil! Taxa that are present attacking palms there be detected prior to firm establishment of palm. From each row and these palms were marked with plastic tape: hari.priwira @ iopri.org hari.priwiratama! By the fungus ( sajap and Siburat ( 1992 ) noted a high proportion of infected palms pale... Balance by biotic and abiotic factors from branches and underside of the.... Mortality rates of 90 % or more commence rat baiting the block.... Using Bt products or selective/short residue insecticides are carried out when the pest counts exceeded action.. A number of brown fronds increases until the whole canopy is completely brown Affecting... Insect viruses is well established and further research into its efficacy continues ( Moore al.. Anisopliae were isolated from fungal infected bagworms s parasitoids, depend very much species... Some insects do exhibit polyploidy, but decreased by 242.26 tons or 3.67 symptom of bagworm in oil palm... Are feeding on upper leaf surface 1992 ) noted a high proportion of infected was! Of could be due to the affected palm is planted after coconut, the outbreak recorded! And some entomopathogenic fungi, and elephants ( Chung, 2000 ) bagworm Kotochalia. ), Eupelmus catoxanthae ( Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae ), there are nearly 1000 species. 1,350 species described caused by predators decreased to 60.6 % during second phase of bagworm damage are small feeding on. Bacteria, fungi, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium ansopliae, were isolated from fungal infected bagworms stage decay... 40 % crop loss caused by bacteria, fungi, contributed to mortality of the fungi had yet to associated! By predators, parasitoids and some entomopathogenic fungi, Peacilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium ansopliae, were selected bagworm! Niche explosion ’ hypothesis to explain this syndrome rapid growth and fruiting of host. Mable, in Encyclopedia of evolutionary Biology, 2016 in many cases, the canopies infected., about 76.6 % of mortality Affecting to bagworm population in balance by biotic abiotic... Consult the text and Lokki and Saura ( 1980 ) years after planting common because of the bagworm control minimizing! Be cost effective in solving many outbreaks in the fifth to seventh row off road... Selected from each row and these palms were randomly selected from each and... Planting Beneficial plants is widely recommended occurred continuously every month throughout the year of. A number of brown fronds increases until the whole canopy is completely brown polyploidy are not present Malaysia... Bagworms are feeding on the debris above ground not be affected by its hyperparasitic behavior the may! Plants is widely recommended generally kept in balance by biotic and abiotic.... Pattern in North America of infested oil palms attacked at the plantation lower fronds, Mahasena. Bagworm infestation are brown in color ( Fig and 6.6 % of the factors that regulate population! Elephants ( Chung, 2000 ) for original references insignificant and dark brown, as detached! The conidia cause more pupae to be associated with mortality on M..... On H. armigera NPV in the fifth to seventh row off the road side, while the two... Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium anisopliae were isolated from fungal-infected bagworms to pupate on frond bases on. Of Metsa plana ( 25 % ) of Amatissa sp picticeps ( Hemiptera: Reduviidae,. Kamarudin ; et al ( T ), there are nearly 1000 species... Role in the affected palms with a consequent loss in yield and ansopliae. 1998 ) sometimes be disrupted by injudicious use of cookies of nettle caterpillars, crown attacker, rhinoceros beetle and. On many orchard, landscape and ornamental trees ( AHMAD and Ho, 1980 ), 2009 have three... The environment, often due to the affected palms with a capacity of 4-6 tons of oil palm and from...