Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Marius died on 13 January, just 17 days into his seventh consulship. Then, by parlaying his relatio… Called to an emergency session by Marius, the Senate issued its 'final decree' (the Senatus consultum ultimum), and ordered Marius, as consul, to put down the revolt. Last modified October 09, 2017. Metellus, in turn, appointed Marius as his legate, which was an immense opportunity. [148] A few men – including Sulpicius – were executed but, according to Plutarch, many Romans disapproved of Sulla's actions. [130] Marius then sent the corpses of Lupus and his officers back to Rome. [40] Legates (legati) were originally simply envoys sent by the Senate, but men appointed as legates by the Senate were used by generals as subordinate commanders, usually becoming the general's most trusted lieutenant. However, after several harrowing brushes with death, Marius seized an opportunity to return to Rome and mete out justice to his enemies, which tarnished his once-enviable reputation. 03 Dec 2020. He is known for his Marian Reforms, military reforms that changed and improved the Roman War Machine, from its equipment, organization, logistics, to its recruitment system. Although Plutarchclaims that Marius' father was a labourer, this is almost certainly false since Marius had connections with the nobility in Rome, he ran for local office in Arpinum… [27] In 116 BC he barely won election as praetor for the following year, coming in last,[28] and was promptly accused of ambitus (electoral corruption). [118], Plutarch portrays this voluntary exile as a great humiliation for the six-time consul: 'considered obnoxious to the nobles and to the people alike', he was even forced to abandon his candidature for the censorship of 97. By 87 BCE, the Republic’s two consuls, Cinna and Octavius, were in the midst of a violent spat, which provided Marius a chance to return. "Marius and the Roman Nobility", This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 17:43. [166], Second, the decision to call up the proletarii would not be fully felt until the time to draw down the troops. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. [42], By 108 BC, Marius expressed his desire to run for the consulship. Related Content The Julii had done so only once in the 2nd century, in 157 BC. Gaius Julius Caesar (100 - 44 BC) Gaius Julius Caesar was born most likely on 13th July (originally Quinctilis, but renamed in honor of Caesar after his death) in the year 100 BC. [91] Marius ordered his camp servants and all other non-combatants to march with the army. After gaining control of the hill Marius and Metellus led their men against the rear of the Numidian cavalry. [16][14], It would seem that even at this early stage in his army career, Marius had ambitions for a political career in Rome. Unsurprisingly Marius' ad hoc force was no match for Sulla's legions. In 157 BC, Marius was born in Cereatae, a small village near the Latin town of Arpinum in southern Latium. However, many Romans turned against Marius because they realized that he had initially partnered with a murderous and seditious outlaw. And it was likely initially envisioned as nothing more than a temporary measure to meet the extraordinary threats of Numidia and the Cimbrian tribes. During the Battle of the Muthul Marius' actions probably saved the army of Metellus from annihilation. [101] The Tigurini gave up their efforts to enter Italy from the northeast and went home. [83] Lacking a decisive conclusion to the Cimbrian conflict over the last two years, it was not a foregone conclusion that Marius would win reelection. [89] This decision proved fatally flawed. He was elected as the consul on seven occasions, including five successive consulships. License. Nationality: Ancient Rome Executive summary: Roman General and consul However, it still paled in comparison to Sulla’s eventual bloody proscriptions, which supposedly claimed the lives of thousands. An accidental skirmish between Roman camp servants, getting water, and bathing Ambrones turned into a spontaneous battle between Marius' army and the Ambrones. In early 89 BC, with the expansion of the war slowing, the Senate dispatched Lucius Porcius Cato to take over the troops under Marius' command. Sherwin-White, 'Violence in Roman Politics', 'Marius Amongst the Ruins of Carthage', a poem by Felicia Hemans, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gaius_Marius&oldid=990988870, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox military person with embed, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Articles which contain graphical timelines, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [101] Once again, Roman discipline overcame a larger barbarian force. [43] Metellus did not give Marius his blessing to return to Rome,[41] allegedly advising Marius to wait and run with Metellus's son (who was only twenty, which would signify a campaign 20 years in the future), Marius began to campaign for the consulship. [133][132] Marius now in sole command continued the fight against the Marsi and their allies. Failing to take his camp the Teutones and their allies moved on, Marius followed them waiting for an opportune moment to attack. Gaius Marius would go on to become of … The Cimbri established a fearsome alliance with the Teutones, Ambrones, and others to challenge Rome. The wealthy continued to try to influence the voting by inspecting ballots and Marius passed a law narrowing the passages down which voters passed to cast their votes in order to prevent outsiders from harassing the electors. [58] Meanwhile, Jugurtha was trying to get his father-in-law king Bocchus of Mauretania to join him in the war against the Romans. Teutobod, the Teutonic king, and 3,000 warriors escaped the battle only to be caught by the Sequani who handed them over to Marius. [13], Over this time, while the Republic raised men and prepared for the Cimbric threat, a slave revolt engulfed Sicily. He frustrated them by refusing to give battle, staying inside his heavily fortified camp fighting of their attempts to storm his fortress. Although this was no responsibility of Marius, he was smeared as a man who betrayed … [151], Marius along with his son then returned from exile in Africa to Etruria with an army he had raised there and placed themselves under consul Cinna's command to oust Octavius. [89], Marius' consular colleague in 102 BC, Quintus Lutatius Catulus, did not fare so well. At this point, he sought the consulship once again but resorted to bribing voters, which ensured his election.